• A recent paper in Neuroscience by a research team in Montreal, Canada, marks an important step in repealing the precise underpinnings of 'the potent pleasurable stimulus' that is music. Although the study involves plenty of fancy technology, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
  • Here, we report that GABAergic (GABA) and dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are activated with different temporal patterns during acute and chronic itch. DA neuron activation lags behind GABA neurons and is dependent on scratching of the itchy site.
  • Nov 15, 2016 · Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS) are a specific high-risk group for developing schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several genes in the deleted region have been implicated in the development of SZ, e.g., PRODH and DGCR8. However, the mechanistic connection between these genes and the neuropsychiatric phenotype remains ...
  • Those subsets of aminergic neurons that target the mushroom bodies likely each connect to most if not all mushroom body neurons, with octopaminergic/tyraminergic and dopaminergic neurons innervating different domains of the mushroom bodies (Pauls et al., 2010b; Selcho et al., 2012). Critically, it is only by the simultaneous activation of the calmodulin (‘odour’) and G-protein pathways (‘reward’ or ‘punishment’, respectively) that the AC is substantially activated.
  • A motor unit is made up of a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers innervated by that motor neuron's axonal terminals. Groups of motor units often work together to coordinate the contractions of a single muscle; all of the motor units within a muscle are considered a motor pool.
  • Approximately 32 percent of all fatal crashes and 40 of of those during holidays involve alcohol. More than 60 percent of homicides involve alcohol use by either the offender or the victim. Approximately 20,000 people are killed and 1.5 million injured by drunk drivers each year.
  • – a collection of neurons from a variety of brain areas working in parallel that include . prefrontal cortex (the front-most part of the brain) and the . anterior cingulate. arousal – the physiological state of being engaged with the environment determined by the reticular activating system . refers to the ways that awareness is regulated ...
  • Oct 04, 2006 · Central congenital hypoventilation syndrome is caused by mutations of the gene that encodes the transcription factor Phox2b. The syndrome is characterized by a severe form of sleep apnea attributed to greatly compromised central and peripheral chemoreflexes. In this study, we analyze whether Phox2b expression in the brainstem respiratory network is preferentially associated with neurons ...

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Strongly argues that dreams should be viewed as a kind of mental stimulation that is very similar in content to our everyday waking thoughts o The same themes that occupy us in our waking life occupy our dreams Activation-synthesis theory – dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from activity in the lower part of the brain Dreams result from the brain’s attempt to find logic in random brain activity that occurs during sleep When we are awake and ...
Understanding the brain is key to living a good life, once you know how you and other people operate you are better equipped to deal with life. This is going to be a long read, grab your favourite beverage and sit comfortably :) Now let’s imagine ...

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Jan 16, 2015 · The term reward system refers to a group of structures that are activated by rewarding or reinforcing stimuli (e.g. addictive drugs). When exposed to a rewarding stimulus, the brain responds by increasing release of the neurotransmitter dopamine and thus the structures associated with the reward system are found along the major dopamine ...
Although land animals generally walk forward, they readily switch to walking backward if they sense an obstruction or danger in the path ahead. Such a switch is likely to involve a neural signal sent from the brain down to local motor circuits, instructing these motor circuits to alter the phase at which specific leg muscles are activated. Bidaye et al. (p. [97][1]; see the Perspective by ...

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Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, or FACS, can be used to sort cells of interest in bulk or in single-cell depositions for downstream applications. To analyze cells for surface marker expression, a single-cell suspension must be stained with fluorescent-labeled antibodies and analyzed or sorted on a flow cytometer.
Jun 01, 2018 · Headphones worn by the user during the stimulation session provide the auditory stimulation. When activated for the treatment session, the device will generate light and sound oscillations at 40 cycles per second (Hz) for 60 minutes. Participants will use the device daily during their active treatment period.